The culture of child, forced and early marriages in Zimbabwe
perpetuates gender-based violence and undermines the health, growth,
dignity, security and development of the girl child in Zimbabwe.
Child, forced and early marriages are also linked to higher rates of
school dropouts, unintended pregnancies due to sexual abuse and also
increased risks of miscarriage, unsafe abortions, stillbirth,
intrauterine haemorrhage and increased vulnerability to HIV/AIDS and
other sexually transmitted infections among young girls.
Zimbabwe has a clear obligation under international and regional
treaties and conventions and national legislation to take measures to
prevent child marriages and address all forms of violence against
women and girls.
Sections 78 and 81 of the Constitution provide that anyone below the
age of 18 years is a child, and the Constitutional Court has confirmed
that marriage with children under 18 years is prohibited. Section
78(2) of the Constitution provides that no person can be compelled to
enter into a marriage against their will.
Section 70 of the Criminal Law (Codification and Reform) Act (Chapter
9:23) provides that any person who has sexual intercourse with a
person below the age of 16 years, with or without their consent, shall
be guilty of rape or aggravated indecent assault or indecent assault.
The Domestic Violence Act (Chapter 5:16) criminalises abuse derived
from any cultural or customary rites or practices, including child and
forced marriages that discriminate against or degrade girls and women.
Sadly, in spite of these legal protections, there is an on-going and
unabated practice in religious and cultural sects of rape, child
abuse, and marrying-off young girls, exposing them to child
pregnancies and worse.
It is against this background that ZLHR calls on:
• Members of the apostolic sect to desist from practising these
harmful practices as they expose young girls to sexual predators and
is tantamount to rape and child abuse.
• The Zimbabwe Republic Police and human rights institutions such as
the Zimbabwe Human Rights Commission (ZHRC) and the Zimbabwe Gender
Commission (ZGC) to investigate this issue and bring the perpetrators
to account according to section 245 of the Constitution. Law
enforcement agencies should enforce the law without fear, favour or
• The Parliament of Zimbabwe to pass the Marriages Bill 2019 into law
as a matter of urgency, during its current sitting, to align the
legislation with sections 78 and 81 of the Constitution by repealing
outdated provisions allowing young girls to get married at 16 years,
or younger with the consent of the minister.
• All stakeholders such as the civil society, ZHRC, ZGC, traditional
and church leaders to coordinate themselves and engage on child, early
and forced marriages.
• All stakeholders to conduct awareness programmes to inform rural and
urban dwellers about the dangers of child, early and forced marriages
and the laws that are being violated. It is also important to educate
society as a whole about gender-based violence and the laws and
policies that exist in the country.
• Communities to report child, early and forced marriages to the
police and other stakeholders working in this area. Most cases remain
underreported due to fear of retribution.